Questionnaire Design - Getting Started is the Hardest Part!
When working with potential clients, they often ask, how do you design a questionnaire? Although it is a standard question to ask, the answer is most definitely not standard. There may be some similarities across surveys for common metrics like Net Promoter Score, but in most cases when you begin writing a questionnaire for a new research study, you are starting from scratch. Getting started can be a very daunting task, but a good tip to get the process going is to ask the 5W’s, plus 1H: Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? The answers to these questions not only help in survey design, but they also aid in your overall research plan. Below are some common answers to these questions:
Qualitative data: In-depth interviewers, focus groups, discussion boards, etc.
Need results by the end of March
Determine brand awareness & usage
Gauge customer/patient satisfaction
Monitor customer/patient behavior
Create user/customer/patient profile
Create non-user/non-customer/non-patient profile
Conduct competitive analysis
Measure new product viability & pricing
Check potential market feasibility
Are research results to be used
Collection of data via an online panel
Collection of data via client provided email addresses, phone numbers, or mailing addresses
Collection of data via purchased list of phone numbers or mailing addresses
Collection of data using some combination of the above
After you answer these key questions, starting with an outline is very helpful. The two bookends of this outline are an easy place to start in that you most often start with screening and end with demographics. Middle sections are less straightforward and may vary for each survey. However, there are some larger themes that can help get you started. Below are themes for 5 major sections of a questionnaire, including some examples for each:
I. Screening: used to qualify respondents, may overlap slightly with demographics
a. Household/company decision maker
b. Household general location
c. Current or past work in market research
d. Current awareness of brand or product
II. Global Questions: gauge more general/overall opinions and perceptions
Likelihood of future use/purchase
Likelihood to recommend – Net promotor score
III. Individual Attributes: more specific in nature, used to drill down to precise topics
Agreement statements about brand, experience, product usage, etc.
Satisfaction levels/rating of individual experience components
Opinion on individual pricing components
Choice based exercise for conjoint or MaxDiff analysis
Membership benefit questions
IV. Behavior/Lifestyle questions: often used for segmentation
V. Demographics: used for profiling, as well as possible segmentation
Hopefully this helps in simplifying the process of getting started on survey design. The ANA Research Questionnaire Design Blog will be on-going. Coming up next – question wording and scaling considerations.
Please feel free to reach out to firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions on this blog or questionnaire design in general.